The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital.
Early life Carlyle was the second son of James Carlyle, the eldest child of his second marriage. James Carlyle was a mason by trade and, later, a small farmer, a man of profound Calvinist convictions whose character and way of life had a profound and lasting influence on his son.
Carlyle was equally devoted to his mother as well as to his eight brothers and sisters, and his strong affection for his family never diminished. After attending the village school at Ecclefechan, Thomas was sent in to Annan Academy, where he apparently suffered from bullying, and later to the University of Edinburghwhere he read widely but followed no precise line of study.
His father had intended him to enter the ministry, but Thomas became increasingly doubtful of his vocation. He had an aptitude for mathematicsand in he obtained a mathematical teaching post at Annan.
In he went to another school, at Kirkcaldywhere the Scottish preacher and mystic Edward Irving was teaching. He became one of the few men to whom Carlyle gave complete admiration and affection. The next years were hard for Carlyle. Teaching did not suit him, and he abandoned it.
In December he returned to the University of Edinburgh to study law, and there he spent three miserable years, lonely, unable to feel certain of any meaning in life, and eventually abandoning the idea of entering the ministry.
He did a little coaching tutoring and journalism, was poor and isolated, and was conscious of intense spiritual struggles. About he experienced a kind of conversion, which he described some years later in fictionalized account in Sartor Resartuswhose salient feature was that it was negative—hatred of the Devil, not love of God, being the dominating idea.
In those lean years he began his serious study of German, which always remained the literature he most admired and enjoyed.
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Meanwhile, he led a nomadic life, holding several brief tutorships at Edinburgh, Dunkeld, and elsewhere. Marriage On October 17,Carlyle married Jane Welsh, an intelligent, attractive, and somewhat temperamental daughter of a well-to-do doctor in Haddington.
The hesitations and financial worries that beset them are recorded in their letters.
It is interesting that Carlyle, usually so imperious, often adopted a weak, pleading tone to his future wife during the time of courtship, though this did not prevent him from being a masterful, difficult, and irritable husband, and, in spite of their strong mutual affection, their marriage was full of quarrels and misunderstandings.
Those who knew him best believed Carlyle to be impotent. In the early years of their marriage the Carlyles lived mostly at Craigenputtock, Dumfriesshire, and Carlyle contributed to the Edinburgh Review and worked on Sartor Resartus.
Though this book eventually achieved great popular success, he had at first much difficulty in finding a publisher for it.
Written with mingled bitterness and humour, it is a fantastic hodgepodge of autobiography and German philosophy. London Inafter failing to obtain several posts he had desired, Carlyle moved to London with his wife and settled in Cheyne Row.Among science fiction stories with space flight, the overwhelming majority are about combat, both between spacecraft and between futuristic ground troops.
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(Sept. 14, ) Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Adm. John Richardson poses with contest winners and representatives of the CNO Naval History Essay Contest during the McMullen Naval History Symposium at the U.S.
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